Te-au acceptat la noul tau job? Esti inginer si asta iti ocupa tot timpul?! Lucrezi in domeniul naval si singura ta problema este Limba Engleza?!Aici gasiti cateva expresii care va vor ajuta sa va familiarizati cu termenii tehnici din acest domeniu.
1. Merchant ships can be classified according to what they carry.
2. Most are designed to carry cargo, but a few still carry passengers.
3. cargo ships can be divided into two basic types.
4. One type carries dry cargo, the other carry liquid cargo, however, an OBO ship is designed is designed to carry both.
5.A traditional dry cargo ship is the multi-deck vessel.
6. Her holds are divided horizontally by one or two ‘tween decks, because these make stowage of individual packages easier.
7. Dry bulk cargo is carried in bulk carriers.
8. These do not have ‘tween decks as cargo is carried loose.
9. The most modern type of dry cargo carrier is the container ship.
10. They carry containers of standard dimensions, consequently stowage is easier.
11. Fruit, meat and dairy produce are carried in refrigerated ships.
12. Oil tankers are the most common type of liquid cargo carrier.
13. They are often very large, because huge quantities of oil need to be transported and one large vessel is more economical to operate than two smaller ones.
14. Two other types of liquid bulk carrier of growing importance are the liquefied natural gas (LNG) carrier and the chemical carrier, although chemicals can also be carried in drums in general cargo ships.
15. In comparison with cargo vessels, passenger ships are fewer in number and type.
16. The traditional passenger ship is the passenger liner, however many carry cargo as well.
17. Nowadays their number has been greatly reduced, because of competition from air transport.
18. Another type of passenger vessel is the cruise ship.
19.These are similar in appearance to passenger liners.
20. The most common type of passenger vessel is the ferry.
21. Many of them are also designed to carry vehicles, therefore these have doors at the stern or bows.
22. Merchant ships are designed to carry cargo.
23. The cargo which they carry may be divided into two basic types: bulk cargo and general cargo. 24.Former consists of a single cargo, which is generally carried loose.
25. The latter consists of a variety of goods, which are packed separately.
26. Bulk cargo is carried in specially designed vessels, therefore stowage presents few problems. 27. With general cargo stowage presents many problems, because each item, which is different in shape and size, has its own type of packaging and characteristics.
28. cargo which is carried in bulk can be divided into liquid or dry bulk cargo.
29. Liquid dry cargo is carried in tankers.
30. Most are designed to carry crude oil, which is transported to the refineries, or its refined products, such as fuel oils.
31. The oil is carried in tanks which are connected by a system of pipes to a central manifold.
32. The cargo is pumped on board at the loading port by shore pumps.
33. At the discharging port the ship pumps the oil ashore using her own pumps, which may be of the reciprocating or the centrifugal type.
34. Dry cargo is carried in bulk carriers.
35. The cargo, which includes grain, iron-ore, coal and sugar, is carried in self-trimming holds.
36. It is unloaded automatically by buckets on a conveyor belt system or through large tubes.
37. Although the cargo stows itself, it is important to maintain the ship’s stability and to make sure that the cargo will not move during the voyage.
38. Dry bulk cargo is unloaded by huge grabs on cranes or by giant suction tubes which are called elevators.
39. General cargo can be divided into containerized, non-containerized and refrigerated cargo.
40. Cargo which is not in containers presents the greatest stowage problem, because each commodity has its own type of packaging and characteristics.
41. Goods may be in bags, bales, cases or steel drums.
42. Individual pieces of machinery which are large and awkward may not be packaged at all.
43. Cargoes which have a strong odour, such as tabacco and rubber, will taint delicate cargoes, such as tea and rice.
44. Cargoes which re dusty, such as cement and fertilizers, leave a residue behind them.
45. Heavy cargoes must not be stowed on top of fragile ones.
46. This can cause problems if the heavy cargo has to come out first.
47. General cargo which is not in containers is carried in multi-deck vessels.
48. To help with problem of stowage many types of general cargo are now being put into containers of standard dimensions.
49. Containers, which are 8 feet high and 8 feet wide (2.44 m x 2.44 m) and 20 feet or 40 feet (6.1 m or 12.2 m) in length, are carried in specially designed container ships and loaded and unloaded by special cranes from the quayside.
50. The containers are stowed both above and below deck.
51. Cargo which is perishable, such as meat, fruit and dairy products, is carried in ships which have refrigerating holds.
52. These are designed to keep food at the correct temperature.
53. Some food, such as fish, is frozen solid, other food, such as fruit, is only chilled.
54. Mutton and lamb are stowed fore and aft, beef when chilled is hung from hooks, which slide along rails.
55. Eggs and butter, which are packed in cases, are easily tainted.
56. Fruit needs good ventilation.
57. Refrigerated cargo is loaded in the same way as general cargo which is non-containerized.
ashore -pe uscat, la mal
bulk cargo-marfuri in vrac
bulk carrier-bulk carrier, vrachier
central manifolds-rezervor/colector central
cruise ship-nava de croaziera
general cargo-marfuri generale
grab-escavator, draga, bena
liquid bulk cargo-lichid neimbuteliat
multi-deck vessel-nava cu mai multe punti
passenger liner-pasager de linie, pachebot
reciprocating pump-pompa alternativa
refrigerated ship-nava frigorifica
self trimming-care se aseaza singur